Notes on Overcoming the Biosphere-social Crisis
In its essence the conception of landscape-estate urbanization — is a resource for overcoming biosphere-social crisis. It is actual for both the global and the local scale. To be effective though landscape-estate urbanization must possess certain qualities.
The bottom line — is to ensure reproduction of the population that will be able to develop culture, while preserving biocenosis in the regions, where the infrastructure for life and work should be organized.
Hence this conception should en-corporate two aspects:
Main Principles of Biosphere-ecological Policy of a State
The basis for biocenosis on the continents are rivers and lakes: water determines productiveness of biocenosis in terms of total volume of biomass and in terms of diversity of biological species.
Accordingly topical question is — governmental policy and regime of water protection areas along the shores of the brooks (spawning sites), rivers and lakes. It is biological science (ideas of biologists — specialists on biocenosis) that should be regarded as a fundamental for governmental policy in the aspect of developing water protection areas, not the claims of dominating subjects aimed to improve their lot and obtain short-termed (comparing to the biocenosis life-span) highest possible profitability of their enterprises.
Further, policy and regime of water protection areas oblige to maintain not only so-called “national parks” and a dozen of federal reservations, but every region should have more than one reservation, where the business activities should be absolutely prohibited and the tourism, recreational services harmonized with the reproduction-cycle of biological species in these areas.
The purpose of such kind of reservations — maintain and support the growth of biological species in areas, where business activity and population hinder natural reproduction of biological species in biocenosis.
Violation of the regime of water protection areas and reservations should be treated as especially heavy crime and punished without remorse, so that violators were put in action for like five years on restoring ecological balance of biocenosis — perhaps during this process their love for the Nature will awake.
Family — is a “seed” from which the future of society grows up. Therefore the main task is to ensure stable life of a family bearing in mind its above-mentioned social function.
Life conditions of a family are different in urban and in rural area — this difference is a result of a historical peculiarities of our civilization development.
Characteristic features of a city are that:
● on the one hand
○ housekeeping is easier
○ more opportunities exist in sense of education, medical assistance, diversity of leisure (for those who have time for leisure)
○ work and leisure schedule is steady during the year
● on the other hand
○ city techno-sphere — is a powerful mutagenous factor, which disables reproduction of biologically healthy population
○ the bigger the city, the lower is the physiological and psychological influence of the Nature on a person. As a result city-habitant tends to lose psychological well-being in the first place.
Characteristic features of a rural area are that:
● on the one hand:
○ an individual is open to physiological and psychological touch of the Nature,
○ minimal level of mutagenous effect of techno-sphere;
● on the other hand:
○ more effort is needed for housekeeping,
○ in one period of the year there is a deficit of workforce and in another there is a little need for it, (workforce is needed periodically, not equally during the year)
○ there are less opportunities for getting education, medical assistance; there is a lack of diversity in leisure, and now and then it is absolutely impossible to get those above-mentioned social resources;
According to these circumstances demographic strategy of a state should ensure:
○ negative biological gain of population in cities overall,
○ de-population of million-plus cities and finding ways to implant on their current territories landscapes typical for geographic area in order to form leisure sites for citizens and lessen technogeniс influence on the population,
○ excess of population in relation to the local workforce demand
○ balancing flow of the young population from the rural area to cities and vice versa
In respect to the demographic policy described above landscape-estate urbanization should ensure that in rural area:
● quality of domestic life and services i.e. educational, medical assistance, diversity of leisure activities will be comparable to the current services and activities in cities. Quality of these services must be improved to make personal growth equally possible for any person irrespectively to the place of living.
● physiological and psychological effect of the Nature is preserved in order to sustain reproduction of biologically healthy population, which is typical nowadays for the rural area.
Change the image of the cities in a way that city ceases being a physiologically and psychologically depressive environment.
Principles of landscape-estate urbanization
To bring to life above-mentioned ideas following problems must be resolved:
● coordination of water-protection areas and reservations with geography of field developments;
● subordination of transport, energetics and telecommunication infrastructure to the strategy and regime of water-protection areas and reservations;
● matching transport infrastructure with new residential areas, that must be constructed in accordance with the landscape-estate urbanization conception.
Design of new landscape-estate residential areas must be based on the following principles:
● On the first stage working, leisure and living areas are to be bound to the landscape and infrastructure.
● In the populated area everything for the most part has to be located in a walking distance and reachable within half an hour — forty minutes; main inner-residential transport — bicycles, kick-scooters and recumbents, in the snowy period — skies (tools for avoiding hypodynamia must be integrated in the lifestyle of population);
● Sites designed for the estates should not border each other, they should be separated by lanes of intact nature or plantings 10-20 meters width.
● Sites’ perimeter should be curved (there are no square corners and no straight lines in nature, so curved perimeter is more organic psychologically and does not create barrier between Nature and a person)
Architecture and arrangement of buildings on the site should afford:
● Either initially comfortable life of several family generations conjoint under one roof, in such a manner that everyone could isolate oneself if needed, and at the same time be able to communicate with the others.
● Or a possibility to upgrade and expand living premises in order to meet demands of a family growth (on the one hand — care of elderly people is a responsibility of the young generations, on the other hand — youngsters must grow seeing in front of them all stages of their future life).
I.E. demographic policy of a state should agree on the fact that only a family combined of several generations is able to provide fully valid upbringing and resolve social problem of a lonely old age. Hence, a state should support with all it’s political power above-mentioned type of a family as the dominating one.
Problems of employment of population might be resolved on the basis of the following principles:
● in agriculture in accordance with season needs for workforce;
● industrial organizations entirely or only their technologically specialized divisions may be bounded to the same transport infrastructure and the population of nearby residential areas may be employed on it. Tools for delivering personnel — personal motor vehicle or shuttle-buses on schedule.
● industrial companies may develop their facilities given the fact that it might might be possible to call for extra workforce because of the workforce availability fluctuation during a year.
● agricultural enterprises in case if they are bounded to transport and energetics infrastructure, may create supportive industrial units that will provide job for the personnel during seasonal lack of work on the main plant.
Efficiency of such kind of organization of work and life will be the better, the higher the overall cultural and educational level of population will be (therefore change of workplace and occupation — will not be stress and not a problem for the majority).
But all the above described could be reached only if a state policy acknowledges that:
● moneymaking is not the meaning of life,
● main mass of population — is not a mean for satisfying “affluenza” or any other kind of lust of so-called “elite”,
● economical activity of individuals — is a tool to provide meaning of life for everyone: in other words one should live and work for the sake of a certain idea, receiving for his work descent salary, which will allow him to develop family, bring up children, communicate at leisure with other people and so forth.
/As revised of 26 april 2008/